Computational Fluid Dynamics for Sport Simulation

von: Martin Peters

Springer-Verlag, 2009

ISBN: 9783642044663 , 134 Seiten

Format: PDF, OL

Kopierschutz: Wasserzeichen

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Computational Fluid Dynamics for Sport Simulation


 

Preface

5

Contents

8

Contributors

9

Numerical Models and Simulations in Sailing Yacht Design

11

1 Sailing Yacht Design

11

1.1 Performance Evaluation

12

1.2 Yacht Appendages

15

1.3 Physics of Downwind Sailing

15

2 Mathematical Model

18

2.1 Flow Equations

18

2.2 Rigid-Body Fluid/Structure Interaction

21

2.3 Wind–Sails Interaction

22

2.3.1 Modelling the Sail Structure

23

2.3.2 Fluid–Structure Coupling Algorithm

25

2.3.3 Pressure Relaxation

26

3 Mesh Generation and Mesh Motion

27

3.1 Block-Structured Mesh for Hydrodynamic Studies

27

3.2 Mesh Handling in Wind/Sails Interaction

29

4 Numerical Results

30

4.1 Advances in Appendage Design

31

4.2 Free-Surface Simulations

34

4.3 Fluid–Structure Interaction for Downwind Sails

37

5 Conclusions

40

References

40

Swimming Simulation: A New Tool for Swimming Research and Practical Applications

42

1 Introduction

42

2 Areas of Application of Computational Fluid Dynamics

43

3 Computational Fluid Dynamics Applied to Biological Systems

44

3.1 Computational Fluid Dynamics Applied to Birds/Insects

44

3.2 Computational Fluid Dynamics Applied to Fishes

46

4 Computational Fluid Dynamics Applied to Human Beings

47

4.1 Terrestrial Locomotion

47

4.2 Aquatic Locomotion

47

5 Computational Fluid Dynamics Applied to Competitive Swimming

48

5.1 Experimental vs. Numerical Data

48

5.2 Segmental Propulsion

50

5.2.1 Variation of Drag and Lift According to Angle of Attack

50

5.2.2 Relative Contribution of Drag and Lift to Propulsion

52

5.2.3 Studies with Unsteady Flows

54

5.2.4 Contribution of Arm's Action to Propulsion

55

5.2.5 Contribution of Leg's Action and Kicking to Propulsion

56

5.2.6 Finger's Positions

56

5.3 Drag

60

5.3.1 Kicking after Start and Turn

60

5.3.2 Gliding Positions

61

5.3.3 Drafting

62

5.3.4 Relative Contribution of Drag Components to Total Drag

63

5.3.5 Swimsuits and Training Equipments

65

6 Computational Fluid Dynamics Methods Contribution for Near Future Development of Swimming Science

66

7 Conclusions

67

References

67

On CFD Simulation of Ski Jumping

71

1 Introduction

71

2 Geometric Simulation of a Ski Jumper

74

3 Numerical Results

78

3.1 The Flow Solver

78

3.2 Euler Calculation

78

3.3 Navier-Stokes Calculation

81

4 A Ski Jumper in Flight

82

5 A Proposal for New Ski Design

84

6 Concluding Remarks

86

References

90

Soccer Ball Aerodynamics

91

1 Introduction

91

2 Basics of Sports Ball Aerodynamics

92

2.1 Basic Definitions

92

2.2 Boundary Layers

93

2.3 Boundary Layer Separation and Drag

93

2.4 The Magnus Effect

95

3 Soccer Ball Aerodynamics

96

4 Measurement and Analysis Methods

97

5 CFD of Soccer Balls: The Nature of Erratic Flight

98

5.1 Introduction

99

5.2 Establishing the Method

100

5.3 Soccer Ball Analysis

102

5.3.1 Set-up

102

5.3.2 Drag Results

102

5.3.3 Variation with Orientation

105

5.3.4 Effects on Trajectory

107

5.3.5 Factors Affecting the Trajectory

108

5.4 Conclusions

109

References

110

Aerodynamics of an Australian Rules Foot Ball and Rugby Ball

111

Nomenclature

111

1 Introduction

112

2 Experimental Procedure and Equipment

113

2.1 Description of Balls

113

2.2 Experimental Set Up and Equipment

114

3 Computational Fluid Dynamics Models and Computational Procedure

116

4 Results and Discussion

118

4.1 Experimental Results

118

4.2 Computational (CFD) Results

122

4.2.1 Rugby Ball

122

4.2.2 Australian Football League Football

123

5 General Discussion

131

6 Concluding Remarks

134

7 Recommendations for Further Work

134

References

135